Accounting, systematic development and analysis of information about the economic affairs of an organization. This information may be used in a number of ways: by a firm’s managers to help them plan and control ongoing operations; by owners and legislative or regulatory bodies to help them appraise the organization’s performance and make decisions as to its future; by owners, lenders, suppliers, employees, and others to help them decide how much time or money to devote to the company; by governmental bodies to determine what taxes a business must pay; and occasionally by customers to determine the price to be paid when contracts call for cost-based payments.
Accounting provides information for all these purposes through the maintenance of data, the analysis and interpretation of these data, and the preparation of various kinds of reports. Most accounting information is historical—that is, the accountant observes all activities that the organization undertakes, records their effects, and prepares reports summarizing what has been recorded; the rest consists of forecasts and plans for current and future periods.
Accounting information can be developed for any kind of organization, not just for privately owned, profit-seeking businesses. One branch of accounting deals with the economic operations of entire countries. The remainder of this article, however, will be devoted primarily to business accounting.
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international payment and exchange: Balance-of-payments accounting
The balance-of-payments accounts provide a record of transactions between the residents of one country and the residents of foreign nations. The two types of accounts used are the current account and the capital account.
The objectives and characteristics of financial reporting
The overarching objective of financial reporting, which includes the production and dissemination of financial information about the company in the form of financial statements, is to provide useful information to investors, creditors, and other interested parties. Ideally, accounting information provides company shareholders and other stakeholders (e.g., employees, communities, customers, and suppliers) with information that aids in the prediction of the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of future cash flows. In addition, financial statements disclose details concerning economic resources and the claims to those resources.
In recent years, there has been a growing demand on the part of stakeholders for information concerning the social impacts of corporate decision making. Increasingly, companies are including additional information about environmental impacts and risks, employees, community involvement, philanthropic activities, and consumer safety. Much of the reporting of such information is voluntary, especially in the United States.
In addition, quantitative data are now supplemented with precise verbal descriptions of business goals and activities. In the United States, for example, publicly traded companies are required to furnish a document commonly identified as “management’s discussion and analysis” as part of the annual report to shareholders. This document summarizes historical performance and includes forward-looking information.
To accountants, the two most important characteristics of useful information are relevance and reliability. Information is relevant to the extent that it can potentially alter a decision. Relevant information helps improve predictions of future events, confirms the outcome of a previous prediction, and should be available before a decision is made. Reliable information is verifiable, representationally faithful, and neutral. The hallmark of neutrality is its demand that accounting information not be selected to benefit one class of users to the neglect of others. While accountants recognize a tradeoff between relevance and reliability, information that lacks either of these characteristics is considered insufficient for decision making.
In addition to being relevant and reliable, accounting information should be comparable and consistent. Comparability refers to the ability to make relevant comparisons between two or more companies in the same industry at a point in time. Consistency refers to the ability to make relevant comparisons within the same company over a period of time.
In general, financial reporting should satisfy the full disclosure principle—meaning that any information that can potentially influence an informed decision maker should be disclosed in a clear and understandable manner on the company’s financial statement.
Company financial statements
The primary output of the financial accounting system is the annual financial statement. The three most common components of a financial statement are the balance sheet, the income statement, and the statement of cash flows. In some jurisdictions, summary financial statements are available (or may be required) on a quarterly basis. These reports are usually sent to all investors and others outside the management group. Some companies post their financial statements on the Internet, and in the United States the financial reports for public corporations can be obtained from the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) through its website. The preparation of these reports falls within a branch of accounting known as financial accounting.
The balance sheet
A balance sheet describes the resources that are under a company’s control on a specified date and indicates where these resources have come from. As an overview of the company’s financial position, the balance sheet consists of three major sections: (1) the assets, which are probable future economic benefits owned or controlled by the entity; (2) the liabilities, which are probable future sacrifices of economic benefits; and (3) the owners’ equity, calculated as the residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting liabilities.
The list of assets shows the forms in which the company’s resources are lodged; the list of liabilities and the owners’ equity indicate where these same resources have come from. The balance sheet, in other words, shows the company’s resources from two points of view—asset and liability—and the following relationship must be maintained: total assets are equal to total liabilities plus total owners’ equity.
This same identity is also expressed in another way: total assets minus total liabilities equals total owners’ equity. In this form, the equation emphasizes that the owners’ equity in the company is always equal to the net assets (assets minus liabilities). Any increase in one will inevitably be accompanied by an increase in the other, and the only way to increase the owners’ equity is to increase the net assets. This is known as the fundamental accounting equation.
Assets are ordinarily subdivided into current assets and noncurrent assets. The former include cash, amounts receivable from customers, inventories, and other assets that are expected to be consumed or can be readily converted into cash during the next operating cycle (production, sale, and collection). Noncurrent assets may include noncurrent receivables, fixed assets (such as land and buildings), intangible assets (such as intellectual property), and long-term investments.
The liabilities are similarly divided into current liabilities and noncurrent liabilities. Most amounts payable to the company’s suppliers (accounts payable), to employees (wages payable), or to governments (taxes payable) are included among the current liabilities. Noncurrent liabilities consist mainly of amounts payable to holders of the company’s long-term bonds and such items as obligations to employees under company pension plans. The difference between total current assets and total current liabilities is known as net current assets, or working capital.
In the United States, for example, the owners’ equity is divided between paid-in capital and retained earnings. Paid-in capital represents the amounts paid to the corporation in exchange for shares of the company’s preferred and common stock. The major part of this, the capital paid in by the common shareholders, is usually divided into two parts, one representing the par value, or stated value, of the shares, the other representing the excess over this amount. The amount of retained earnings is the difference between the amounts earned by the company in the past and the dividends that have been distributed to the owners.
A slightly different breakdown of the owners’ equity is used in most of continental Europe and in other parts of the world. The classification distinguishes between those amounts that cannot be distributed except as part of a formal liquidation of all or part of the company (capital and legal reserves) and those amounts that are not restricted in this way (free reserves and undistributed profits).
A simple balance sheet is shown in Table 1. Because the two sides of this balance sheet represent two different aspects of the same entity, the totals must always be identical. Thus, a change in the amount for one item must always be accompanied by an equal change in some other item. For example, if the company pays $40 to one of its trade creditors, the cash balance will go down by $40, and the balance in accounts payable will go down by the same amount.
|Table 1: Any Company, Inc.: Balance sheet as of December 31, 20__|
|total current assets||$480|
|plant and equipment||original cost||$300|
|less: accumulated depreciation||(110)||190|
|liabilities and owners’ equity|
|current liabilities||wages payable||$20|
|total current liabilities||$180|
|long-term bonds payable||70|
|owners’ equity||common stock||$100|
|additional paid-in capital||150|
|total owners’ equity||480|
|total liabilities and owners’ equity||$740|
The income statement
The company uses its assets to produce goods and services. Its success depends on whether it is wise or lucky in the assets it chooses to hold and in the ways it uses these assets to produce goods and services.
The company’s success is measured by the amount of profit it earns—that is, the growth or decline in its stock of assets from all sources other than contributions or withdrawals of funds by owners and creditors. Net income is the accountant’s term for the amount of profit that is reported for a particular time period.
The company’s income statement for a period of time shows how the net income for that period was derived. For example, the first line in Table 2 shows the company’s net sales revenues for the period: the assets obtained from customers in exchange for the goods and services that constitute the company’s stock-in-trade. The second line summarizes the company’s revenues from other sources.
|Table 2: Any Company, Inc.: Income statement for the year ended December 31, 20__|
|net sales revenues||$800|
|interest and other revenues||14|
|cost of merchandise sold||$492|
|salaries of employees||116|
|provision for taxes on ordinary income||47|
|operating income||$ 47|
|gain on sale of investment (less applicable taxes)||5|
|net income||$ 52|
The income statement next shows the expenses of the period: the assets that were consumed while the revenues were being created. The expenses are usually broken down into several categories indicating what the assets were used for. In Table 2, six expense items are distinguished, starting with the cost of the merchandise that was sold during the period and continuing down through the provision for income taxes.
The bottom portion of the income statement reports the effects of events that are outside the usual flow of activities. In this case it shows the result of the company’s sale of some of its long-term investments for more than their original purchase price. Because this was not part of the company’s normal operations, the sale price, costs, and taxes on the sale were kept separate from the operating revenue and expense totals; the income statement shows only a single number, the net gain on the sale.
Net income summarizes all the gains and losses recognized during the period, including both the results of the company’s normal, day-to-day activities and any other events. If net income is negative, it is referred to as a net loss.
The income statement is usually accompanied by a statement that shows how the company’s retained earnings have changed during the year. Net income increases retained earnings; net operating loss or the distribution of cash dividends reduces them. Any Company, Inc., started the year with retained earnings of $213 and added $52 in net income during the year (Table 2). Dividends amounting to $35 were distributed to shareholders during the year, leaving a year-end balance of $230. This is the amount on the year-end balance sheet (Table 1).
The statement of cash flows
Companies also prepare a third financial statement, the statement of cash flows. Cash flows result from three major aspects of the business: (1) operating activities, (2) investing activities, and (3) financing activities. These three categories are illustrated in Table 3.
|Table 3: Any Company, Inc.: Statement of cash flows for the year ended December 31, 20__|
|cash from operating activities:|
|net income||$ 52|
|increase in monetary assets other than cash||2|
|gain on sale of investment||(5)||$ 82|
|cash from investing activities:|
|purchase of equipment||$(41)|
|sale of investment||19||(22)|
|cash from financing activities:|
|issuance of bonds||$ 10|
|increase in cash balance||$ 35|
The cash flow statement is distinct from an income statement, but the two statements are similar in that they summarize activities over a period of time. In the accompanying example, cash amounting to $19 was received from the sale of the investment; the income statement included only the $5 gain—the difference between the sale proceeds and $14, the amount at which the investment had been shown in the balance sheet before it was sold. Since net income, the top lines in Table 3, included the $5 gain, the company could not include the full net income and the full cash proceeds from the sale of the investment, because that would have counted the $5 twice. Instead, Any Company, Inc., subtracted the $5 from net income (line 5 in the table) and reported the full $19 below, under cash from investing activities.
The income statement differs from the cash flow statement in other ways, too. Cash was received from the issuance of bonds and was paid to shareowners as dividends; neither of those figured in the income statement. Cash was also paid to purchase equipment; this added to the plant and equipment assets but was not subtracted from current revenues because it would be used for many years, not just this one.
Cash from operations is not the same as net income (revenues minus expenses). For one thing, not all revenues are collected in cash. Revenue is usually recorded when a customer receives merchandise and either pays for it or promises to pay the company in the future (in which case the revenue is recorded in accounts receivable). Cash from operating activities, on the other hand, reflects the actual cash collected, not the inflow of accounts receivable. Similarly, an expense may be recorded without an actual cash payment.
Table 3 adds items not requiring immediate cash payment to income (e.g., depreciation) and subtracts items that appear in the income statement but are not part of the results of operations (e.g., the gain on the sale of a long-term investment). The bottom line shows that the company’s stock of cash and marketable securities increased by $35 during the year.
The purpose of the statement of cash flows is to throw light on management’s use of the financial resources available to it and to help the users of the statements to evaluate the company’s liquidity—its ability to pay its bills when they come due.
Most large corporations in the United States and in other industrialized countries own other companies. Their primary financial statements are consolidated statements, reflecting the total assets, liabilities, owners’ equity, net income, and cash flows of all the corporations in the group. Thus, for example, the consolidated balance sheet of the parent corporation (the corporation that owns the others) does not list its investments in its subsidiaries (the companies it owns) as assets; instead, it includes their assets and liabilities with its own.
Some subsidiary corporations are not wholly owned by the parent; that is, some shares of their common stock are owned by others. The equity of these minority shareholders in the subsidiary companies is shown separately on the balance sheet. For example, if Any Company, Inc., had minority shareholders in one or more subsidiaries, the owners’ equity section of its December 31, 20__, balance sheet might appear as follows:
The consolidated income statement also must show the minority owners’ equity in the earnings of a subsidiary as a deduction in the determination of net income. For example:
Disclosure and auditing requirements
A corporation’s obligations to issue financial statements are prescribed in the company’s own statutes or bylaws and in public laws and regulations. The financial statements of most large and medium-size companies in the United States fall primarily within the jurisdiction of the SEC. The SEC has a good deal of authority to prescribe the content and structure of the financial statements that are submitted to it. Similar authority is vested in provincial regulatory bodies and in the stock exchanges in Canada; disclosure in the United Kingdom is governed by the provisions of the Companies Act. In Japan financial accounting is guided by three laws: the Commercial Code of Japan, the Securities and Exchange law, and the Corporate Income Tax law.
A company’s financial statements are ordinarily prepared initially by its own accountants. Outsiders review, or audit, the statements and the systems the company used to accumulate the data from which the statements were prepared. In most countries, including the United States, these outside auditors are selected by the company’s shareholders. The audit of a company’s statements is ordinarily performed by professionally qualified, independent accountants who bear the title of certified public accountant (CPA) in the United States and chartered accountant (CA) in the United Kingdom and many other countries with British-based accounting traditions. Their primary task is to investigate the company’s accounting data and methods carefully enough to permit them to give their opinion that the financial statements present fairly the company’s position, results, and cash flows.
In preparing financial statements, the accountant must select from a variety of measurement systems, often standardized by industry or government regulation, that guide the calculation of assets and liabilities. For example, assets may be measured by their historical cost or by their current replacement value, and inventory may be calculated on a basis of last-in, first-out (LIFO) or first-in, first-out (FIFO). To enhance comparability, companies in similar industries often find it to their advantage to adhere to the same measurement concepts or principles.
In some countries these concepts or principles are prescribed by government bodies, and other guidance is obtained from the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), an independent standard-setting organization based in the United Kingdom. In the United States the principles are embodied in generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), which represent partly the consensus of experts and partly the work of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), a private body. Within the United States, however, the principles or standards issued by the FASB or any other accounting board can be overridden by the SEC.
Asset value is an important component of a company’s total value, and it can be computed in a number of ways. One approach determines asset value by calculating what those assets are worth to their owners. According to this measurement principle, the economic value of an asset is the maximum price that the company would be willing to pay for it. This amount depends on what the company expects to be able to do with the asset. For business assets, these expectations are usually expressed in terms of forecasts of the inflows of cash the company will receive in the future. If, for example, the company believes that by spending $1 on advertising and other forms of sales promotion that it can sell a certain product for $5, then this product is worth $4 to the company.
When cash inflows are expected to be delayed, value is less than the anticipated cash flow. For example, if the company has to pay interest at the rate of 10 percent per year, an investment of $100 in a one-year asset today will not be worthwhile unless it will return at least $110 a year from now ($100 plus 10 percent interest for one year). In this example, $100 is the present value of the right to receive $110 one year later. Present value is the maximum amount the company would be willing to pay for a future inflow of cash after deducting interest on the investment at a specified rate for the time the company has to wait before it receives its cash.
Value, in other words, depends on three factors: (1) the amount of the anticipated future cash flows, (2) the projected timing of cash flows, and (3) risk as reflected in the interest rate. The lower the expectation, the more distant the timing, and the higher the interest rate, the less valuable the asset will be.
Value may also be represented by the amount the company could obtain by selling its assets; this is known as fair market value. This sale price is seldom a good measure of the assets’ value to the company, however, because few companies are likely to keep many assets that are worth no more to the company than their market value. Continued ownership of an asset implies that its present value to the owner exceeds its market value, which is its apparent value to outsiders.
Accountants are traditionally reluctant to accept value as the basis of asset measurement in the going concern. Although monetary assets such as cash or accounts receivable are usually measured by their value, most other assets are measured at cost. The reason is that the accountant finds it difficult to verify the forecasts upon which a generalized value measurement system would have to be based. As a result, the balance sheet does not show how much the company’s assets are worth; it shows how much the company has invested in them.
The historical cost of an asset is the sum of all the expenditures the company made to acquire it. This amount is not always easily measurable. If, for example, a company has built a special-purpose machine in one of its own factories for use in manufacturing other products, and the project required logistical support from all parts of the factory organization, from purchasing to quality control, then a good deal of judgment must be reflected in any estimate of how much of the costs of these logistical activities—all occurring within the company—should be “capitalized” (i.e., placed on the balance sheet) as part of the cost of the machine.
From an economic point of view, income is defined as the change in the company’s wealth during a period of time, from all sources other than the injection or withdrawal of investment funds. This general definition of income represents the amount the company could consume during the period and still have as much real wealth at the end of the period as it had at the beginning. For example, if the value of the net assets (assets minus liabilities) has gone from $1,000 to $1,200 during a period and dividends of $100 have been distributed, income measured on a value basis would be $300 ($1,200 minus $1,000, plus $100).
Accountants generally have rejected this approach for the same reason that they have found value an unacceptable basis for asset measurement: such a measure would rely too much on estimates of what will happen in the future, estimates that would not be readily attainable through independent verification. Instead, accountants have adopted what might be called a “transactions approach” to income measurement. Ideally they recognize as income only those increases in wealth that can be substantiated from data pertaining to actual transactions that have taken place with persons outside the company. In such systems, income is measured when work is performed for an outside customer, when goods are delivered, or when the customer is billed.
Recognition of income at this time requires two sets of estimates: (1) revenue estimates, representing the value of the cash that the company expects to receive from the customer; and (2) expense estimates, representing the resources that have been consumed in the creation of the revenues. Revenue estimation is the easier of the two, but it still requires judgment. The main problem is to estimate the percentage of gross sales for which payment will never be received, either because some customers will not pay their bills (“bad debts”) or because they will demand and receive credit for returned merchandise or defective work.
Expense estimates are generally based on the historical cost of the resources consumed. Net income, in other words, is the difference between the value received from the use of resources and the cost of the resources that were consumed in the process. As with asset measurement, the main problem is to estimate what portion of the cost of an asset has been consumed during the period in question.
Some assets give up their services gradually rather than all at once. The cost of the portion of these assets the company uses to produce revenues in any period is that period’s depreciation expense, and the amount shown for these assets on the balance sheet is their historical cost less an allowance for depreciation, representing the cost of the portion of the asset’s anticipated lifetime services that has already been used. To estimate depreciation, the accountant must predict both how long the asset will continue to provide useful services and how much of its potential to provide these services will be used up in each period.
Depreciation is usually computed by some simple formula. Two popular formulas are straight-line depreciation, in which the same amount of depreciation is recognized each year, and declining-charge depreciation, in which more depreciation is recognized during the early years of life than during the later years, on the assumption that the value of the asset’s service declines as it gets older. It is the responsibility of an independent accountant (the auditor) to determine whether the company’s depreciation estimates are based on reasonable formulas that can be applied consistently from year to year.
Cost of goods sold
Depreciation is not the only expense for which more than one measurement principle is available. Another is the cost of goods sold. The cost of goods available for sale in any period is the sum of the cost of the beginning inventory and the cost of goods purchased in that period. This sum then must be divided between the cost of goods sold and the cost of the ending inventory:
Accountants can make this division by any of three main inventory costing methods: (1) first-in, first-out (FIFO), (2) last-in, first-out (LIFO), or (3) average cost. The LIFO method is widely used in the United States, where it is also an acceptable costing method for income tax purposes; companies in most other countries measure inventory cost and the cost of goods sold by some variant of the FIFO or average-cost methods. Average cost is very similar in its results to FIFO, so only FIFO and LIFO need to be described.
Each purchase of goods constitutes a single batch, acquired at a specific price. Under FIFO, the cost of goods sold is determined by adding the costs of various batches of the goods available, starting with the oldest batch in the beginning inventory, continuing with the next oldest batch, and so on until the total number of units equals the number of units sold. The ending inventory, therefore, is assigned the costs of the most recently acquired batches. For example, suppose the beginning inventory and purchases were as follows:
The company sold 1,900 units during the year and had 1,100 units remaining in inventory at the end of the year. The FIFO cost of goods sold is:
The ending inventory consists of 1,100 units at a FIFO cost of $5.50 each (the price of the last 1,100 units purchased), or $6,050.
Under LIFO, the cost of goods sold is the sum of the most recent purchase, the next most recent, and so on, until the total number of units equals the number sold during the period. In the example, the LIFO cost of goods sold is:
The LIFO cost of the ending inventory is the cost of the oldest units in the cost of goods available. In this simple example, assuming the company adopted LIFO at the beginning of the year, the ending inventory cost is the 1,000 units in the beginning inventory at $5 each ($5,000), plus 100 units from the first purchase during the year at $5.25 each ($525), a total of $5,525.
Problems of measurement and the limitations of financial reporting
Accounting income does not include all of the company’s holding gains or losses (increases or decreases in the market values of its assets). For example, the construction of an expressway nearby may increase the value of a company’s land, but neither the income statement nor the balance sheet will reflect this holding gain. Similarly, the introduction of a successful new product increases the company’s anticipated future cash flows. While this increase makes the company more valuable, those additional future sales will not show up in the conventional income statement or in the balance sheet until they are recorded as transactions.
Accounting reports have also been criticized on the grounds that they confuse monetary measures with the underlying realities when the prices of many goods and services have been changing rapidly. For example, if the wholesale price of an item rises from $100 to $150 between the time the company bought it and the time it is sold, many accountants claim that $150 is the better measure of the amount of resources consumed by the sale. They also contend that the $50 increase in the item’s wholesale value before it is sold is a special kind of holding gain that should not be classified as ordinary income.
When inventory purchase prices are rising, LIFO inventory costing prevents the recognition of any gains made from the holding of inventories. If purchases equal the quantity sold, then according to LIFO accounting the entire cost of goods sold will be measured at the higher current prices, while the ending inventory will be measured at the lower prices shown for the beginning-of-year inventory. The difference between the LIFO inventory cost and the replacement cost at the end of the year is an unrealized (and unreported) holding gain.
In the inventory example cited earlier, the LIFO cost of goods sold ($10,275) exceeded the FIFO cost of goods sold ($9,750) by $525. In other words, LIFO kept $525 more of the inventory holding gain out of the income statement than FIFO did. Furthermore, the replacement cost of the inventory at the end of the year was $6,050 (1,100 × $5.50), which was equal to the inventory’s FIFO cost; under LIFO, in contrast, there was an unrealized holding gain of $525 ($6,050 minus the $5,525 LIFO inventory cost).
The amount of inventory holding gain that is included in net income is usually called the “inventory profit.” The implication is that this is a component of net income that is less “real” than other components because it results from the holding of inventories rather than from trading with customers.
When most of the changes in the prices of the company’s resources are in the same direction, the purchasing power of money is said to change. Conventional accounting statements are stated in nominal currency units—not in units of constant purchasing power. Changes in purchasing power—that is, changes in the average level of prices of goods and services—have two effects. First, net monetary assets (essentially cash and receivables minus liabilities calling for fixed monetary payments) lose purchasing power as the general price level rises. These losses do not appear in conventional accounting statements. Second, holding gains measured in nominal currency units may merely result from changes in the general price level. If so, they represent no increase in the company’s purchasing power.
In some countries that have experienced severe and prolonged inflation, companies have been allowed or even required to restate their assets to reflect the more recent and higher levels of purchase prices. The increment in the asset balances in such cases has not been reported as income, but depreciation thereafter has been based on these higher amounts. Companies in the United States are not allowed to make these adjustments in their primary financial statements.
As international economies evolve at an accelerating rate, financial accounting faces some daunting challenges. One of the most important questions facing accountants is the problem of assigning value to so-called “soft” assets such as brand image, corporate reputation, goodwill, and human capital. These can be among the most valuable assets controlled by the entity, yet they might be undervalued or ignored altogether under current practices.
In addition, accountants need to develop reliable ways to express forward-looking information; although this kind of information is more speculative than the information represented in financial statements, it is often the most relevant to decision makers. It is difficult to obtain, however, in part because of the uncertain nature of the information and in part because too much information could benefit competitors and harm the company. Furthermore, it is difficult to measure social performance, but this type of information is useful in evaluating organizational effectiveness as it is broadly conceived. While many companies are experimenting with alternative methods to measure and disclose employee and customer satisfaction data, environmental performance, and safety reports, increased standardization will enhance comparability and consistency.
Finally, a global economy demands dramatically enhanced international accounting standards. In order to improve the efficient allocation of capital resources across international boundaries, investors and creditors need to make reasonable comparisons among companies in different countries.
The move toward international accounting standards
A generally accepted international accounting standard, or a common business language across national borders, serves the global economy in two distinct ways. First, it reduces the costs of doing business and conducting audits by eliminating the need to reconcile alternative accounting treatments from one country to another. Second, it improves the credibility of international financial markets and ultimately their efficiency.
The demand for increased comparability among different accounting systems has been spurred on for several reasons. In order to ensure the growth of multinational businesses and foreign investments, financial statement users need to be able to make relevant comparisons between businesses operating in different countries. Similarly, the growing economic aspirations of less-developed countries, the growth of broadly based international capital markets, the fall of the Soviet Union, the advent of the European Monetary Union, and the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement have all led to the almost inevitable conclusion of the need for more standardized financial reporting.
From a technical standpoint, there still exist many differences among countries in the accounting treatment of similar business transactions. In the United Kingdom, for example, real estate is valued at current market value. In the United States, this practice is judged unreliable and accountants continue to list real estate at historical cost. In Japan, pension accounting is based primarily on cash while in the United States much effort is devoted to calculating the future liability associated with pensions. Some countries allow companies quite a bit of choice in selecting appropriate accounting rules; in other jurisdictions accounting rules are extremely specific. Other country-to-country differences include the valuation of marketable securities and inventory; the use of price-level adjustments, foreign currency translations, consolidations, and accounting rules concerning deferred taxes, leases, depreciation, and research and development costs; and goodwill.
Among the most important general issues concerning the harmonization of accounting rules across national borders are disclosure and enforcement. Simply put, some countries require better and more disclosure of business activities and effects than others. Similarly, the degree of enforcement varies widely from country to country as well.
There are good historical reasons for some of these differences in financial reporting. Financial reporting is a reflection of the culture, language, economic system, and legal system of its country of origin. For example, Germany and Japan have historically demanded much less financial disclosure than the United Kingdom and the United States because the first two countries relied on a limited number of banks for their capital needs. As the economic systems of continental Europe and Japan have evolved and many businesses now obtain capital from many more sources, so too has the financial reporting system improved. In both Europe and Japan governments have recognized the need for transparent organizations and have adopted more stringent accounting disclosure requirements.
Because accounting standards originated within countries as they sought to standardize commerce within their borders, international accounting does not exist per se but is instead a collection of those individual national methods. Each country follows its own set of generally accepted accounting standards. Nevertheless, there has been much effort to establish supranational groups to help in harmonizing accounting standards. These groups have included the International Federation of Accountants, a group in New York City consisting of 114 professional accounting bodies; the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC), which was founded in London in 1973 and succeeded by the IASB in 2001; and arms of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and of the European Economic Community.
Efforts by the IASC and IASB have been particularly noteworthy. In 1999, the IASC completed a list of core standards, which have been accepted by an increasing number of companies around the world. Early in this process, the London and Hong Kong stock exchanges required IASC compliance on the part of all foreign-listed companies. In addition, the finance ministers of the original Group of Seven nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States) endorsed these standards and encouraged those involved in standard-setting to finalize a set of internationally agreed-upon accounting and financial reporting rules. As a result, the FASB in the United States eliminated the controversial “pooling of interest” method of accounting for business combinations, which had made it difficult for investors to evaluate transactions, including the acquisition of other businesses. This change brought the GAAP closer in line with the IASC standards. In addition, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants sent a letter to the IASC (the IASB’s predecessor) endorsing its efforts at establishing a set of enforceable international accounting standards.
Despite these gains, there are still numerous obstacles to creating a truly global accounting system. Even with the growing international acceptance of IASB standards at the turn of the 21st century, the United States continued to require all foreign companies to reconcile their accounting to GAAP—not IASB—recommendations. Most important, adherence to the IASB standards has remained voluntary, making them unenforceable.
Some of the limitations associated with the IASB rules include a lack of comprehensiveness, insufficient development of interpretive guidelines, and a lack of any infrastructure for ensuring the enforcement of the new standards. In addition, many jurisdictions might be unwilling to sacrifice their authority in establishing accounting rules in favor of an international standard-setting body.